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Právní forma instituce
Přednášky Peru 2005 Vylita
Part I Balneology – Modern Trends and the Czech Republic Case Study
Balneology was formerly described like the only medicinal scientific branch seeing to the usage of local natural curative resources and their effects on human body. During the times the balneotherapy and balneotechnics were defined like basic parts of balneology, for there is no medicine without support of technics and natural sciences.
There are plenty of spa localities all over the world where the curative effects of water, salts and mud are used in praxis, but there are great differences among them. First of all in balneotherapeutical praxis because there are many spa resorts using water and other resources just for fun or relaxation without any ambition to heal the physical organism or the soul.
The contemporary division of balneology used in the continental Europe which is the typical spa area with a great healing tradition is therefore to
Balneotherapy i.e the medicine of natural curative resources, using not only water but peloids or specific climatic conditions and usually traditional curative processes including life regimen and dietetic provisions to prevent the diseases, to heal the body, to post-surgical recuperation and rehabilitate all the states demanding the medical care. The specialised health resorts are used to provide such care, usually in the places with the occurence of natural curative resources,
Balneotechnics i.e the complex of technical and nature-historical sciences seeing to tapping, accumulation, distribution of natural resources, taking care about technical equipment of health resorts, about prospective protection of natural sources etc. Balneotechnics is based on hydrogeology (i.e. geology of ground water), chemistry, hydrology, climatology and civil engineering, building trade and architecture, too.
The original application of a spa was usually based on hot springs , where people seeking relief from chronic diseases soaked in mineral-rich thermal water. There are many archeological excavations all over the world talking about that fact, e.g. Teplice in Bohemia , Gánovce in Slovakia etc. Si mple relaxation took place later in the proximity of hot springs occurrence e.g. in ancient Greece and Rome . Centuries of experience have shown that the local thermal or just mineral waters have beneficial therapeutic effects e.g. on digestive tract or metabolic diseases etc. The thousands and thousands spa clients = patients - mentioned that the spa procedures have a general positive impact on their overall physical and mental well being.
Most of people are consciously aware of the responsibility they bear for their own health, now. Spa treatment provides therapeutic and preventative benefits for them. The huge development of health resorts in the Middle Europe in the 19 th and 20 th century is still going on here, may be not in extense but intense style.
The former bath therapy usually consisted of hours long rituals to provide relief for diseases of joints, muscles and tendons and relief for post-injury pains (injuries coming not only from battles but hunting and work accidence). Rheumatic conditions used to be very often medieval problems because of moist, poorly heated stone buildings, too. The warm baths might have had soothing and healing effects on skin problems concerning the personal and community hygiene of that time were. Intestinal parasites and syphillis were common, too.
The spa clientele at that time consisted entirely of the aristocracy, clergy and the rich urban people, scarcely the poor, and if the poor, only those from the nearby areas.
While the skin and rheumatic disorders were on the decline later, because of changes in the society e.g. during the 16 th century, digestive disorders were trending in the opposite direction (stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large bowel, big glands). The drinking therapy became something that was both needed and wanted. That is when people started to drink the mineral waters instead of using them for bathing purposes, e.g. in Karlovy Vary and other localities.
The importance of appropriate nutrition was promoted in the 19th century. Additional emphasis was being put on occupational diseases such as chronic mercury poisoning caused for example from manucfactoring the mirrors etc. the drinking cures has a beneficial effect on the water and mineral processing in the human body and it positively influences the patient´s metabolism (central organ is liver; gall bladder, pancreas). Some types of water caused improvement of in the condition of diabetic patients.
The bathing therapy is combined with taking the water and many other curative processes today. The modern concept of the complete treatment came after the II GW. A regimen which often combine the drinking therapy with nutritional and other procedures became increasingly popular ins ome spa places because of growing necessity to treat civilisation conditions. Many of them are locomotive apparatus disorders, related to the back, joints and muscles etc. Some new procedures became usual during a short period of time concerning treatment of woman diseases, gum diseases etc., etc.
Natural Curative Resources of Spa Treatment
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|Rumbos modernos en balneología||Balneología en el mundo|